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Nur as-Din al-Bitruji (d. 1204) was an Arab jurist and astronomer who lived in Spain in the twelfth century . Al-Bitruji is best known for presenting a non-Ptolemaic astronomical system that suggested that physical causes were the source of celestial motions. A crater on the Moon, Alpetragius, is named after him.
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Ali ibn Isa al-Asturlabi was a ninth century Arab astronomer and geographer. He was famous for many things, but most notably for his opposition to astrology, for writing an early treatise on the astrolabe, and for measuring the circumference of the Earth (which he has estimated to be about 40, 248 km).
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